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Tuesday, 14 November 2017

High blood pressure or hypertension.

What is high blood pressure or stress?
High blood pressure (hbp or hypertension) is when your blood pressure, the pressure of the blood flowing through your blood vessels, is always too excessive. Nearly half of New York adults have excessive blood pressure (many don’t even recognize they have it.)
  The exceptional way or the satisfactory manner to understand when you have high blood stress is to have your blood stress checked.


Causes

1. Excess sodium
In step with the american coronary heart association, immoderate degrees of salt (or sodium consumption of more than 1,500 milligrams in keeping with day) can result in excessive blood strain, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases—regardless of age, current fitness condition, and family history.
2. Age
As we age, our blood pressure certainly will increase. However, in case you hold a terrible eating regimen, smoke or drink excessively, or devour a negative eating regimen wealthy in fatty and sugary foods, the hazard increases for developing high blood stress with age.
3. Sleep apnea
Sleep apnea is a situation that causes oxygen degrees to lower all through sleep apnea, ensuing in expanded blood stress and stress on the cardiovascular gadget. People with obstructive sleep apnea are linked to amplified hazard of hypertension.
4. Weight problems
Being obese is related to such a lot of higher blood culprits—as an instance, sedentary lifestyle, bad weight loss program, extended sodium degrees, and raised insulin degrees—which all reason thickening of the arteries, and activates conditions like diabetes, coronary heart attack, and stroke.
5. Decreased cognitive performance
A current observe posted in lancet neurology links excessive blood strain with reduced cognitive performance.
They monitored the blood pressure and brains of a group of 579 healthy ladies and men whose average age turned into 39 using magnetic resonance imaging. The photo of individuals had been in particular healthy caucasians, but some had been people who smoke and had existing hypertension. After the use of magnetic resonance imaging to study every participant’s brain, the studies discovered that higher systolic blood pressure (the common form of hypertension) generally indicated each lower the grey count extent and higher the harm to white rely in the mind.

Symptoms

Humans with excessive blood pressure generally have no signs and symptoms, and so patients could have the circumstance for years with out knowing it, in line with nhlbi.
"we name it the 'silent killer,'" due to the fact sufferers are regularly asymptotic, stated dr. Andrew freeman, a heart specialist at country wide jewish fitness in denver.. In uncommon instances, some human beings with excessive blood pressure experience headaches.
Even though many sufferers won't have signs at first, over time, excessive blood pressure can result in "wear and tear" on the body. As an instance, excessive blood strain can stretch and damage blood vessels, which in turn, can growth the chance of health problems, in step with the american coronary heart association. Stretched blood vessels could have weak spots which might be more likely to rupture, main to a hemorrhagic strokes or aneurysms. Stretching of the blood vessels can also cause tears and scars that create locations for cholesterol or blood to accumulatar.


Treatment

1. Lifestyle modifications
Lifestyle modifications are essential for the prevention of high BP, and these are generally the initial steps in managing hypertension. As the cardiovascular disease risk factors are assessed in individuals with hypertension, pay attention to the lifestyles that favorably affect BP level and reduce overall cardiovascular disease risk. A relatively small reduction in BP may affect the incidence of cardiovascular disease on a population basis. A decrease in BP of 2 mm Hg reduces the risk of stroke by 15% and the risk of coronary artery disease by 6% in a given population. In addition, a prospective study showed a reduction of 5 mm Hg in the nocturnal mean BP and a possibly significant (17%) reduction in future adverse cardiovascular events if at least one antihypertensive medication is taken at bedtime.
2. Surgical intervention
Aortorenal bypass using a saphenous vein graft or a hypogastric artery is a revascularization technique for renovascular hypertension that has become much less common since the advent of renal artery angioplasty with stenting. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for pheochromocytoma and for patients with a unilateral solitary aldosterone-producing adenoma, because hypertension is cured by tumor resection. Of note, patients with benign adenomas may be able to be treated with spironolactone instead of surgery. In patients with fibromuscular renal artery disease, angioplasty has a 60-80% success rate for improvement or cure of hypertension. Another intervention that initially seemed to hold great promise for the treatment of resistant hypertension is renal artery denervation (see the Management of Resistant Hypertension section). However, more recent controlled studies have suggested little benefit on BP from percutaneous renal denervation therapy, and ongoing studies are testing this intervention using newer techniques.
3. Consultations
Consultations with a nutritionist and exercise specialist are often helpful in changing lifestyle and initiating weight loss. Consultation with a hypertension specialist is indicated for management of secondary hypertension attributable to a specific cause.

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